Oct 21, 2018 | Updated: 04:34 PM EDT

Photosynthesis Possible In The Absence Of Light: Algae Evolution Unraveled The Mysteries

Apr 25, 2017 06:22 PM EDT

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Scientists unraveled new mysteries about the origin of algae evolution to find out which primary photosynthetic eukaryote has come into existence first. Researchers have studied on the three photosynthetic eukaryotes that include green algae, red algae, and glaucophytes to analyze the genetic information. Cyanobacteria is known as the first organism to perform photosynthesis.

In a recent study, researchers found the structure of cyanelles organelle is similar to cyanobacteria among other organelles and unique to glaucophytes. Researchers from Waseda University has indicated glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa and cyanobacteria have the similar respiratory effect on photosynthesis. In the journal of Scientific Reports, researchers suggested that cyanobacteria are the ancestor of cyanelles which retain many characteristics from their ancestor.

Lead author and the professor of plant and cell physiology at Waseda University, Kintake Sonoike said,“From the viewpoint of metabolic interactions, C. paradoxa is the primary symbiotic algae most similar to cyanobacteria. Our findings provide valuable information for revealing how photosynthetic organisms evolved”. He also added that more than 2.5 billion years ago cyanobacteria were first evolved as a photosynthetic organism and it used water molecule for photosynthesis.

According to ScienceDaily, Oxygen was produced as the by-product that changed the form of lives on Earth. During the first photosynthesis process, several metabolic interactions in cells have changed dramatically. Cyanobacteria has evolved into chloroplast and mitochondria which are known as the powerhouse of respiration.

Sonoike measured the chlorophyll fluorescence by using pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer. The main purpose was to analyze photosynthesis in C. paradoxa without damaging the cell. Researchers shined different lights with various lumens to measure the fluorescence emission of chlorophyll. Algae has a special mechanism called nonchemical quenching (NPQ) which keep them protected from intense lightings. NPQ was high in the entire darkness and the secretion got decreased in low light. However, it was increased again in the high light.

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