Jun 16, 2019 | Updated: 11:54 AM EDT

Planet Formation Process: A Closer Look

May 30, 2017 04:40 AM EDT

The NASA digital illustration handout released on Feb. 22, 2017 showing the TRAPPIST-1 system containing a total of seven planets, all around the size of Earth.
(Photo : NASA/Getty Images) The Keppler telescope has successfully gathered data of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, enabling astronomers to observe its outermost planet in details.

It is for the first time that the scientists are able to look closer to the process of planet formation. With the recording of temperatures and amount of gas present in the areas compatible for forming a planet, astronomers now have peered into the heart of planet formation.

According to Phys.org, astronomers till now had a theory that planet formation takes place in flared disks of gas and dust. Flares of gas and dust were the small particles which are mainly composed of dust and ice surrounding young stars. Deep inside, planets were formed in the middle of this disk.

The process of planet formation was not directly observed by the astronomers because the disk was too opaque where the process occurred. Astronomers also inferred density, temperatures, and gravitational velocity, which are considered to be the physics of the birth of any planet; still, the midplane of the disk was not being able to be viewed.

The University of Michigan reported that Edwin Bergin and his team from the university's Department of Astronomy have found a new method through which astronomers can peer into the midplane of the disk, where the planet formation takes place. In the research, Bergin and his team peered into a disk, which is 180 light years away with a star which is equal to 0.8 times of the earth's sun.

For observing temperature and other conditions of planet formation, molecular hydrogen could have been used but molecular hydrogen is not emitted at cold temperatures of planet birth. Therefore, astronomers used a tracer molecular, carbon monoxide, in this research.

The discoveries demonstrate that the millimeter wavelength light actually transmitted from this uncommon type of carbon monoxide unmistakably follows the midplane-uncovering interestingly planet formation to the telescopes. For this situation, the cosmologists' perceptions depended on the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array, a universal space science office situated in Chile that measures radio wavelengths produced by particles in these distant disks.

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