University of California San Diego recently conducted a study regarding the development of nanoengineered COVID-19 vaccines. The said vaccines are uniquely manufactured as they can tolerate high-temperature rates that normal types can not. In addition, the COVID-19 nano-vaccines are crafted based on the compositions of plants and bacteria.

New Plant-Based COVID-19 Vaccine

(Photo : Thomas Splettstoesser / WikiCommons)

The new COVID-19 vaccines are potential treatments needed by the world right now. Even though there are a lot of vaccines provided by the government and are also available on the market, it is undoubtful that we need more candidates of treatment in order to cater to most of the people that lack access to the vaccines.

The new version of COVID-19 vaccines has a lot to offer with regard to public health safety. First is that it was formulated with some of the beneficial properties harvested from plants and bacteria. These properties are heavily examined and were found to have antiviral effects which could work against the coronavirus. The second is that the bacteria and plant-based COVID-19 vaccines are specialized to endure high levels of temperature that normal vaccines could not handle, making itself fridge-free.

The plant-based COVID-19 vaccines were first tested with the help of mice subjects. Based on the findings, the vaccines produced high rates of neutralizing agents called antibodies, similar to the pharmaceutical vaccines, that could fight against the intensity of SARS-CoV-2. Once the initial phases of development conclude with its efficacy on human subjects, the fridge-free COVID-19 vaccines will bring a lot of benefits to medical studies and to the people that need treatment from the coronavirus.

UC San Diego's Department of NanoEngineering, Center for Nano-ImmunoEngineering, Institute for Materials Discovery and Design, Department of Bioengineering, and Department of Radiology expert Nicole Steinmetz said in a report by PhysOrg that the thermally stable property of the vaccines was intended for easy access and transportation to reach certain areas where the efficacy of the normal vaccines could lapse over time due to extreme heat or lack of freezing equipment.

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Thermally Stable COVID-19 Vaccines: Cowpea Mosaic Virus and Bacteriophage Qbeta

Two vaccine candidates were formulated throughout the studies. The plant-based COVID-19 vaccine originated from the cowpea mosaic virus and the bacteria-based is from the bacteria virus called bacteriophage Qbeta.

Both of the newly developed COVID-19 vaccines are formulated through the same ingredients they had with each other. The study used the cowpea plants and fused ith together with the E.coli bacterias in order to have multiple copies of both the plant virus as well as the bacteriophage. Through this process, both the base organisms were structured in spheres down to the nano-scale levels.

The nanoparticles of both the plant virus and the bacteriophage were then fused to the spike proteins the enveloped an active SARS-CoV-2 virus. The endgame is that the reactions between the nanoparticles and the coronavirus should look like the original COVID-19 for the immune system to fully recognize the viral body and regard it as an infectious disease. When this phase happens, the last part is in full control of the simulated coronavirus that is not infectious.

The fake viral protein will then teach the immune system how to block the upcoming SARS-CoV-2 in the future, preventing them from infiltrating the totality of human health and boosting the immune response. The study was published in the journal ACS Publications, titled "Trivalent Subunit Vaccine Candidates for COVID-19 and Their Delivery Devices."

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