To date, humans have sent 28 robotic missions to Mars. Together, the Martian rovers and the satellite observers have revealed Mars' chemistry, topography, and some of the planet's history.

Fortunately, there are missions that people now know liquid water once flowed through the surface of the planet, suggesting Mars may have been livable at one time and may even still be occupied by subterranean microbes.

However, according to an Inverse report, "nothing can compare to a human mission to Mars." Elon Musk, SpaceX CEO, is now going a step ahead, pushing to build a permanent city on Mars.

The Starship of SpaceX is being developed to this end. Others, including NASA, are working too, on the technology to take humans to Mars.

Presently, it appears like only a matter of time before humans approach Mars. However, to get there, there are some dangers for humans to be familiar with and overcome first before the trip to Mars.

Science Times - 5 Major Threats to Overcome Before Humans Reach Mars
(Photo: NASA/Joel Kowsky on Wikimedia Commons)
A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover onboard launches from Space Launch Complex 41, Thursday, July 30, 2020, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The Perseverance rover is part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the Red Planet.

5 Major Threats to Overcome

To know how to get to Mars, it is probably helpful to examine who will take humans to the Red Planet in the first place.

One of them is NASA. The American space company is planning to send people to the Red Planet in the 2030s. Granting a ship becomes capable of making the trip. It is, then, good news.

However, according to NASA, there are 5 major dangers to humans that should be addressed. These include:

1. Space Radiation

Exposure to radiation on Earth is known to impair the central nervous system and can lead to cancer. However, we still are not sure what particular space radiation does to the human body.

2. Being Isolated and Confined

During travel in space, loss of sleep, work overload, and interrupted circadian rhythms may compromise the ability of a crew to perform efficiently.

3. Distance the Red Planet and Earth

At some point, the capability of turning back or sending a rescue mission from Earth vanishes. The farther a human gets from Earth, the longer it's taking to deliver messages, and failures of equipment or problems with medical conditions easily addressed on Earth could swiftly turn out disastrous in space.

4. Fluctuating Gravity

Gravity on the Red Planet is less than 50 percent of that on Earth. Members of the crew should work under those conditions for possibly long missions.

There is evidence too, Inverse reported, life in microgravity "may have long-term health outcomes, suggesting live under gravity in Mars may have the same ill-impacts.

5. Unfriendly Environments

Exposure to ambient conditions of Mars would be fatal for a human, and thus, the crew needs to access everything needed in a contained, small space.

Before landing a human-crewed vessel on the Red Planet, NASA plans to set up surface systems to facilitate landing and relaunching.

Pre-placed assets would comprise a power system used to charge robotic landing scouts to identify an ideal touch down the site.

Because of familiar cycles of day and night and the months-long dust storms of Mars, solar power would not be dependable on this Planet. Therefore, NASA and the Department of Energy are attempting to devise a compact fission power system.

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Check out more news and information on Mars on Science Times.