A black hole is impressively easy to describe on its own. Its observable properties are its mass, electric charge (usually zero), and rotation or spin.

It makes no difference how a black hole originates. All black holes, in the end, have the same basic structure. Which, when you think about it, is unusual. When you combine enough iron and rock, you form a planet. You may produce a star by combining hydrogen and helium.

However, if you mixed-grass clippings, bubble gum, and old Harry Potter novels together, you would create the same kind of black hole as if you used pure hydrogen.

Astronomers Observe Black Hole
(Photo: ESA/Getty Images)
396536 01: This European Space Agency photograph released October 25, 2001, shows a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy named MCG-6-30-15 as seen through the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) satellite. With this type of imaging, scientists, for the first time, have seen energy being extracted from a black hole. Like an electric dynamo, this black hole spins and pumps energy out through cable-like magnetic field lines into the chaotic gas whipping around it, making the gas - already infernally hot from the sheer force of crushing gravity - even hotter.

The "no-hair theorem," which is related to the information paradox provided by Brian Koberlein, describes the unusual behavior of black holes.

In other words, because everything in the Universe can be defined by a specific quantity of information and objects cannot just vanish, the total amount of information in the Universe should remain constant. However, when you throw a chair into a black hole, it only adds to the mass and spin of the black hole.

The chair's color and whether it is made of wood or steel and tall or short is lost. So, where did everything go?

The Information Paradox

Thanks to Stephen Hawking, one solution to the information dilemma may be conceivable. He established in 1974 that a black hole's event horizon might not be absolute. Black holes should release a little amount of light known as Hawking radiation due to quantum indeterminacy.

Hawking radiation has never been seen, but the information lost when items enter a black hole may be carried out by this light if it does exist. As a result, the data is not truly lost.

If Hawking radiation exists, then black holes must obey the rules of thermodynamics. Jacob Bekenstein came up with the concept originally. Black holes must have a thermal temperature if they emit light.

Several physicists have demonstrated that black holes have a set of principles known as black hole thermodynamics, based on Bekenstein's notion.

ALSO READ: Did Scientists Just See A Black Hole Swallowing a Neutron Star for the 1st Time?


The Physics of Black Holes

Because you are reading this, you are undoubtedly aware of the second rule of thermodynamics, which states that any system's entropy must grow.

This is why a hot cup of coffee cools down over time, gently warming the room until both the coffee and the room are the same temperature. You will never witness a cold cup of coffee heat up on its own as the environment cools slightly.

The second law states that heat transfers from a hot thing to the cooler objects around it.

The area of a black hole's event horizon is subject to the second law of thermodynamics. This area is linked to a black hole's Hawking temperature. The lower the Hawking temperature of a black hole, the larger it is.

According to the second law of black hole thermodynamics, entropy must grow in any black hole merger. That means the new black hole's surface area must be greater than the combined surface areas of the two original black holes. Hawking's Area Theorem is the name for this.

All of this is, of course, a collection of mathematical theories. It is what we had to predict based on our knowledge of physics, but demonstrating it is another story. Now, a study titled "Testing the Black-Hole Area Law With GW150914" said this is correct.

The researchers examined the first sighting of two merging black holes. The merging of a 29 solar-mass black hole and a 36 solar-mass black hole is currently known as GW150914.

The team calculated the event horizon surface areas for the original black holes using a new research approach on the gravitational waves they created. They discovered that the total area grew when they compared them to the surface area of the final 62 solar-mass black hole.

The results have a 97 percent confidence level, which is good but not strong enough to be declared conclusive.

This method, however, may be used to study additional black hole mergers, and it is the first concrete proof that black hole thermodynamics is more than a theory.

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